Is there any math I can do with Python that a standard calculator can’t do?
The cool thing about programming is that you can make use of code other people have written by using modules. So even if you can’t do something with basic Python, a module may exist to do a given type of math. Modules extend the abilities of your program by allowing you to use that code written by other people.
One example is the math module, which allows you to find the absolute value of a number, round numbers, and calculate factorial of a number, among other things. And this is only one simple module of the many available to you!
Lots of other modules exist for things like visualizing data, collecting and storing massive sets of data, and even getting random Star Wars facts!
The namespace where we run code is itself a module.
Libraries are more what the name describes: a comprehensive collection of abstracted code concepts usually in the form of a class. From them we inherit all the methods that are built into them. This is on top of the Standard Library that Python runs on.
Bottom line, the terms are not synonymous. When a library is imported it occupies the same namespace as the standard library. It’s like it was always there. The language is broken into these segments so that memory is not compromised unless it absolutely needs to be. The core library is ample enough to do most things, language wise. Libraries add labor saving tools and significantly more horsepower than what we might compose in core terms.