What is an object in Python programming language?

What is an object?

Is Python an object-oriented language? what does it mean? what is an object in computer science? I mean what is the difference between Python and other programming languages let’s say Java in terms of an object?

Basically, an object is a type. For example, a type int, or integer is an object. Each type of object has its own set of behaviours. Object oriented programming means that you can create your own type of objects, with their own behaviour. Some programming languages, like Golang, aren’t object-oriented, which means you can’t create your own types. Java, is, though.
I hope this helps!

2 Likes

Thank you for your reply. You mentioned interesting points but I confused a bit about your first sentence "an object is a type’’ and β€œEach type of object”? then type could not be an object. As far as I understand so far everything in python is an object. So, objects will cover type too. It means each object has different types of behaviours. Objects can be number, string, function, lists, variable, etc.

However, I am so interested to find out if Python is object-oriented what is the advantages of that in comparison to other programming languages? How we can use that option to do better coding?

So, I am so eager to achieve knowledge in the depth of the above concepts. It might be basics, however, in my opinion, it is important to have a sound knowledge of those foundations as a computer programmer.
Any further information would be appreciated!

1 Like

To understand in more depth, you should look into the different programming paradigm:

https://medium.com/@LiliOuakninFelsen/functional-vs-object-oriented-vs-procedural-programming-a3d4585557f3

There comes a point where you can’t learn everything into detail, computers where they are today is the work of millions of man hours. Too much for a single human to learn

you could learn something about CPU and RAM, certainly useful in an abstract way to understand some of it. You could do lower level languages like C and assembly to widen your understanding

5 Likes

Sorry, not the best answer.
Essentially, as you said, everything in Python is an object. Think of object like the word fruit. There are lots of different types of fruit, just as there are lots of different types of objects (integers, floats, strings, etc). Each one has its own behaviours, just like each type of fruit has its own flavour, colour, etc.

Python is object oriented, as you can create your own objects, and give them specific qualities and behaviours. To create an object, you use the class keyword, but the Python lessons cover this:

class foo:
   pass

I hope this helps!

3 Likes

Thanks, guys for your informative answers. So, let’s summarise that.

So, far I am confident about the following paragraph:
In Python, everything is an object. It means that numbers, strings, functions, modules etc. A direct consequence of this is that all objects can be assigned to variables. This cause interesting abilities in Python. Indeed, It’s great Python is object-oriented because It generally means that things work the way you expect them to. Python is the object-oriented language because it’s stressed on objects. Indeed, object is simply a collection of data (variables) and methods (functions) that act on those data.

What is required to be discussed further: What is the role of class in terms of an object in our code?
In terms of class, does very object has to belong to a class? Do all codes need to be in a class? or Python can give you other options? Is class an object too?

Any further opinions on the above topic would be appreciated.

Python has extensive documentation on classes:

https://docs.python.org/3/tutorial/classes.html

which states the following:

Creating a new class creates a new type of object

no, functions are still objects but do not have to be in a class.

seems to truly grasp this, we also need to look into the history of old and new school classes:

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/6368432/objects-vs-instance-in-python

many interesting reads.

1 Like

(In case you’re interested, in languages like Java, the whole program must be in a class).

1 Like

Hey guys! Thank you for your illuminative comments.
Lets’ review the main question "What is an object in Python programming language? "

Let’s review the main points:
Everything is an object in Python programming language. I am going to discuss that matter in another point of view :

In general, the word everything is a very strong pronoun which gives lots of weight to an object in Python.
When it is defined everything is an object in Python programming language then lots of questions are shaped in my mind? Believe in me it’s a very strong concept.
In science few items can have the pronoun β€œeverything” for example in physics and general chemistry it is supposed every substance has mass. How much mass is important in modern engineerings?
How much it has helped to develop science? How many scientists get involved in that subject? It’s a key parameter in human science that might be considered basic concept these days though. However, there are still lots of things that must be researched about that.

In my submission object play the same role in Python because of its power. So, to understand Python from scratch to advanced level object plays more role. The first question must be what is an object for Python developers?
The other question that might appear in your mind as same as myself is :
Okay, if everything in Python is an object then can we reach the point that object is everything in Python? or it might be another important factor like an object in Python which you need to be concerned about that to interact with that? How is it defined in Python to be not considered as an object?

So far, concerning previous comments, I am confident to say that the class in Python is an object too. It seems object is very powerful.

I am very glad everybody interested in Python to contribute to this discussion to share more knowledge about Python or in the general Programming language. We started from scratch, This a new topic for me and I really appreciate your time for reading my questions and the time for sharing your informative opinions. Happy coding!

2 Likes

Geek Bits!
How Python describes class and object? Have you ever tried typing class in Python shell? Hang on a second.I tried to find another way to figure out the object and class concepts by seeking help directly from Python. All errors are making me confused. Surely, that’s the catch?
Python displays as below:

Python 3.8.2
Type β€œhelp”, β€œcopyright”, β€œcredits” or β€œlicense()” for more information.

help
Type help() for interactive help, or help(object) for help about object.

object
<class β€˜object’>

class
SyntaxError: invalid syntax

help(object)
class object
| The base class of the class hierarchy.
|
| When called, it accepts no arguments and returns a new featureless
| instance that has no instance attributes and cannot be given any.
|
| Built-in subclasses:
| async_generator
| BaseException
| builtin_function_or_method
| bytearray
| … and 88 other subclasses
|
| Methods defined here:
…

help(class)
SyntaxError: invalid syntax

help(help)
Help on _Helper in module _sitebuiltins object:

class _Helper(builtins.object)
| Define the builtin β€˜help’.
|
| This is a wrapper around pydoc.help that provides a helpful message
| when β€˜help’ is typed at the Python interactive prompt.
|
| Calling help() at the Python prompt starts an interactive help session.
| Calling help(thing) prints help for the python object β€˜thing’.
|
| Methods defined here:
|
| call(self, *args, **kwds)
| Call self as a function.
|
| repr(self)
| Return repr(self).

Data descriptors defined here:
dict
dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
weakref
list of weak references to the object (if defined)

help(type)
Help on class type in module builtins:

class type(object)
| type(object_or_name, bases, dict)
| type(object) -> the object’s type
| type(name, bases, dict) -> a new type
…

type(object)
<class β€˜type’>

type(class)
SyntaxError: invalid syntax

class
SyntaxError: invalid syntax

object
<class β€˜object’>

dir

dir(help)
[β€˜call’, β€˜class’, β€˜delattr’, β€˜dict’, β€˜dir’, β€˜doc’, β€˜eq’, β€˜format’, β€˜ge’, β€˜getattribute’, β€˜gt’, β€˜hash’, β€˜init’, β€˜init_subclass’, β€˜le’, β€˜lt’, β€˜module’, β€˜ne’, β€˜new’, β€˜reduce’, β€˜reduce_ex’, β€˜repr’, β€˜setattr’, β€˜sizeof’, β€˜str’, β€˜subclasshook’, β€˜weakref’]

dir(object)
[β€˜class’, β€˜delattr’, β€˜dir’, β€˜doc’, β€˜eq’, β€˜format’, β€˜ge’, β€˜getattribute’, β€˜gt’, β€˜hash’, β€˜init’, β€˜init_subclass’, β€˜le’, β€˜lt’, β€˜ne’, β€˜new’, β€˜reduce’, β€˜reduce_ex’, β€˜repr’, β€˜setattr’, β€˜sizeof’, β€˜str’, β€˜subclasshook’]

dir(type)
[β€˜abstractmethods’, β€˜base’, β€˜bases’, β€˜basicsize’, β€˜call’, β€˜class’, β€˜delattr’, β€˜dict’, β€˜dictoffset’, β€˜dir’, β€˜doc’, β€˜eq’, β€˜flags’, β€˜format’, β€˜ge’, β€˜getattribute’, β€˜gt’, β€˜hash’, β€˜init’, β€˜init_subclass’, β€˜instancecheck’, β€˜itemsize’, β€˜le’, β€˜lt’, β€˜module’, β€˜mro’, β€˜name’, β€˜ne’, β€˜new’, β€˜prepare’, β€˜qualname’, β€˜reduce’, β€˜reduce_ex’, β€˜repr’, β€˜setattr’, β€˜sizeof’, β€˜str’, β€˜subclasscheck’, β€˜subclasses’, β€˜subclasshook’, β€˜text_signature’, β€˜weakrefoffset’, β€˜mro’]

dir(class)
SyntaxError: invalid syntax

type(dir)
<class β€˜builtin_function_or_method’>

help(dir)
Help on built-in function dir in module builtins:

dir(…)
dir([object]) -> list of strings

If called without an argument, return the names in the current scope.
Else, return an alphabetized list of names comprising (some of) the attributes
of the given object, and of attributes reachable from it.
If the object supplies a method named __dir__, it will be used; otherwise
the default dir() logic is used and returns:
  for a module object: the module's attributes.
  for a class object:  its attributes, and recursively the attributes
    of its bases.
  for any other object: its attributes, its class's attributes, and
    recursively the attributes of its class's base classes.

What’s the best way to describe above errors? Please share your opinion.

If you’re wondering why help(class) or similar throws an error it’s because class is a keyword, not an object which is what help takes as an argument. It’s like trying to execute help(for) (which would also fail) as it’s just a piece of the syntax.

1 Like

Thank you for your great answer. It works. So, it is agreed that class is a keyword in the shell. So, if that’s the case therefore def ( for defining functions) must be the same. I tried that and I’ve received the same error. So far so good. Then, how we can get help from Python about class or def? let’s convert those into an object. Finally, Python describes argument as below :

def
SyntaxError: invalid syntax
help(def)
SyntaxError: invalid syntax
help(β€œdef”)
Function definitions

A function definition defines a user-defined function object (see
section The standard type hierarchy):
…
help(β€œclass”)
Class definitions

A class definition defines a class object (see section The standard
type hierarchy):

classdef ::= [decorators] β€œclass” classname [inheritance] β€œ:” suite
inheritance ::= β€œ(” [argument_list] β€œ)”
classname ::= identifier
…

Fantastic, this is another reason that shows everything is an object in Python. You can get help for objects in Python.
So far, I’ve learnt a lot form your great replies guys. Thanks. Happy Pythoning!

I don’t think you could call a keyword an object. You’re creating a string with a specific series of characters and passing it to help which avoids the syntax error and lets help look something up but the keyword remains a keyword. It’s like stating a comma is an object when it’s really just a piece of syntax that means something to the interpreter.

1 Like

I’ve just tested that because I supposed it could work to get a class definition or receiving any guidance about that from Python program. As it was discussed, help(object) deals with an object. I meant as far as strings are objects we are able to convert those to strings to get help about the object inside help parentheses like string class ’ class’ or β€˜def’. However, they are still keyword but by doing this help deals with them as strings which are objects too for help? Is there any other way to interact with the Python shell to get information about a class ?
However, I absolutely agree with your opinion too. I am wondering how Python can detect those keywords and displaying their definition?
In my submission, there are still lots of things about the above matters which may need further consideration.