What is all the information presented when I write "ls -l"?


Here we’re told that ls -l shows us the file system that we’re working with. In the first exercise, we’re also shown the filesystem containing much less information than this command shows. What is this extra information that we are seeing?


The extra information that we’re seeing here is information fundamental to any file in a system. In order from left to right, these are

  1. File privileges: If we can read (r) from or write (w) to the file. And finally if the file can be executed (x), for example as programs can.
  2. File ownership: Who the file belongs to in the system.
  3. File group: Which group within the system the file belongs to.
  4. The size of the file in bytes.
  5. The date the file was last modified.
  6. File name.