What are quantifiers? (the `+` and `{14,16}`)

I am confused about the pattern atribute in the username exercise. I understood that if I use this:
pattern="[a-zA-Z0-9]+" I can only use letters and numbers in the username field. But if I rendered it I can still use other characters like ! and @. Can someone clarify this to me, please? Thank you.

Thanks @jon_morris! This was great!

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this explained a lot. thanks!

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Roy- Thank you for all of your answers. They have helped and continue to help me.



So does this mean that without the “+”, the input field would only accept a response with one or less “a” characters? Or only one or less “1” characters? etc.

‘a’ characters. {1,} is the equivalent quantifier.