# Visualizing Tech Stocks

Hello everyone!!

Please below my Visualizing Tech Stocks project. I analyzed 5 technology stocks, using Pandas, Pandas-Datarader, and Matplotlip.

``````Visualizing Tech Stocks
In this project you will analyze and visualize the top 5 highest valued technology stocks, as of the end of the first half of 2019:
* Microsoft (NASDAQ:MSFT)
* Amazon (NASDAQ:AMZN)
* Apple (NASDAQ:AAPL)
* Alphabet (NASDAQ:GOOG)
​
Using Pandas, Pandas-Datarader, and Matplotlib, you will take a visual look into the similarities and differences between these stocks during the six month period from January through June 2019. In your analysis you will perform the following:
1. Visualize the stock prices using matplotlib
2. Calculate and visualize the daily simple rate of return
3. Calculate and visualize the mean rates of return
4. Calculate and visualize the variances of the returns
5. Calculate and visualize the standard deviations of the returns
6. Write a short thesis based on the correlations between the tech stocks
1. Import Packages
Step 1: Import Data Manipulation Packages
Import the pandas and numpy module as pd and np, respectively

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
Step 2: Import Financial Package
Import the pandas data reader module as web. (Ensure the module is installed with pip install pandas-datareader on the command line)

Step 3: Import Visualization Package
Import the matplotlib pyplot module as plt. (Write %matplotlib inline below the import statement to allow your visualizations to appear beneath the code that generates them)

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline
Step 1: Define Stocks
Create a list named symbols containing the symbols for the top 5 tech stocks.

Step 2: Create Dates
Create a datetime object representing January 1st, 2019 named start_date and a datetime object representing July 1st, 2019 named end_date.

Step 3: Retrieve Data
Call the function web.get_data_yahoo() with arguments symbols, start_date and end_date and save the result to stock_data.

Step 4: View Data
View both stock_data and stock_data['Adj Close']. What information is stored in these DataFrames?

# Defining Stocks
symbols = ['MSFT', 'AMZN', 'AAPL', 'GOOG', 'FB']
​
#Creating dates
start_date ='2019-01-01'
end_date ='2019-07-1'
​
#Retriving data
​
stock_data = web.get_data_yahoo(symbols, start_date, end_date)
​
#Viewing data
​
stock_data
Attributes	Adj Close	Close	...	Open	Volume
Symbols	MSFT	AMZN	AAPL	GOOG	FB	MSFT	AMZN	AAPL	GOOG	FB	...	MSFT	AMZN	AAPL	GOOG	FB	MSFT	AMZN	AAPL	GOOG	FB
Date
2019-01-02	99.375191	1539.130005	155.214005	1045.849976	135.679993	101.120003	1539.130005	157.919998	1045.849976	135.679993	...	99.550003	1465.199951	154.889999	1016.570007	128.990005	35329300.0	7983100.0	37039700.0	1532600.0	28146200.0
2019-01-03	95.719376	1500.280029	139.753540	1016.059998	131.740005	97.400002	1500.280029	142.190002	1016.059998	131.740005	...	100.099998	1520.010010	143.979996	1041.000000	134.690002	42579100.0	6975600.0	91312200.0	1841100.0	22717900.0
2019-01-04	100.171211	1575.390015	145.719513	1070.709961	137.949997	101.930000	1575.390015	148.259995	1070.709961	137.949997	...	99.720001	1530.000000	144.529999	1032.589966	134.009995	44060600.0	9182600.0	58607100.0	2093900.0	29002100.0
2019-01-07	100.298965	1629.510010	145.395203	1068.390015	138.050003	102.059998	1629.510010	147.929993	1068.390015	138.050003	...	101.639999	1602.310059	148.699997	1071.500000	137.559998	35656100.0	7993200.0	54777800.0	1981900.0	20089300.0
2019-01-08	101.026199	1656.579956	148.166870	1076.280029	142.529999	102.800003	1656.579956	150.750000	1076.280029	142.529999	...	103.040001	1664.689941	149.559998	1076.109985	139.889999	31514400.0	8881400.0	41025300.0	1764900.0	26263800.0
...	...	...	...	...	...	...	...	...	...	...	...	...	...	...	...	...	...	...	...	...	...
2019-06-25	132.175140	1878.270020	193.786667	1086.349976	188.839996	133.429993	1878.270020	195.570007	1086.349976	188.839996	...	137.250000	1911.839966	198.429993	1112.660034	192.880005	33327400.0	3012300.0	21070300.0	1546900.0	16750300.0
2019-06-26	132.670441	1897.829956	197.978088	1079.800049	187.660004	133.929993	1897.829956	199.800003	1079.800049	187.660004	...	134.350006	1892.479980	197.770004	1086.500000	189.539993	23657700.0	2441900.0	26067500.0	1810900.0	12808600.0
2019-06-27	132.888367	1904.280029	197.918640	1076.010010	189.500000	134.149994	1904.280029	199.740005	1076.010010	189.500000	...	134.139999	1902.000000	200.289993	1084.000000	189.880005	16557500.0	2141700.0	20899700.0	1004300.0	11159000.0
2019-06-28	132.700180	1893.630005	196.115219	1080.910034	193.000000	133.960007	1893.630005	197.919998	1080.910034	193.000000	...	134.570007	1909.099976	198.679993	1076.390015	190.550003	30043000.0	3037400.0	31110600.0	1693200.0	16378900.0
2019-07-01	134.403992	1922.189941	199.712143	1097.949951	193.000000	135.679993	1922.189941	201.550003	1097.949951	193.000000	...	136.630005	1922.979980	203.169998	1098.000000	195.210007	22654200.0	3203300.0	27316700.0	1436300.0	14204700.0
125 rows × 30 columns

Symbols	MSFT	AMZN	AAPL	GOOG	FB
Date
2019-01-02	99.375191	1539.130005	155.214005	1045.849976	135.679993
2019-01-03	95.719376	1500.280029	139.753540	1016.059998	131.740005
2019-01-04	100.171211	1575.390015	145.719513	1070.709961	137.949997
2019-01-07	100.298965	1629.510010	145.395203	1068.390015	138.050003
2019-01-08	101.026199	1656.579956	148.166870	1076.280029	142.529999
...	...	...	...	...	...
2019-06-25	132.175140	1878.270020	193.786667	1086.349976	188.839996
2019-06-26	132.670441	1897.829956	197.978088	1079.800049	187.660004
2019-06-27	132.888367	1904.280029	197.918640	1076.010010	189.500000
2019-06-28	132.700180	1893.630005	196.115219	1080.910034	193.000000
2019-07-01	134.403992	1922.189941	199.712143	1097.949951	193.000000
125 rows × 5 columns

3. Plot the adjusted closing prices over time.
Create a plot with matplotlib that shows the adjusted closing prices of each stock over time. Set the x label to "Date". Set the y label to "Adjusted Closing Price Over Time". Set the graph title to "Tech Stocks Adjusted Price".

​
plt.xlabel("Date")
plt.show()

``````

``````
4. Calculate and plot the daily simple rate of return over time.
Create a plot with matplotlib that shows the daily simple rate of return for each tech stock over time. Label the graph appropriately.

​
daily_return.plot()
plt.title("Daily Simple Rate of Return")
plt.xlabel("Date")
plt.ylabel("Rate of Return")
plt.show()

``````

``````print(daily_return.head())
Symbols         MSFT      AMZN      AAPL      GOOG        FB
Date
2019-01-02       NaN       NaN       NaN       NaN       NaN
2019-01-03 -0.036788 -0.025242 -0.099607 -0.028484 -0.029039
2019-01-04  0.046509  0.050064  0.042689  0.053786  0.047138
2019-01-07  0.001275  0.034353 -0.002226 -0.002167  0.000725
2019-01-08  0.007251  0.016612  0.019063  0.007385  0.032452
5. Create subplots of daily simple rate of return.
In order to better visualize the daily returns, create a subplot for each tech stock.

fig = plt.figure(figsize=(20, 10))
​
​
#Microsoft
ax1 = plt.subplot(2, 3, 1)
plt.plot(daily_return['MSFT'], color='green')
plt.title('Microsoft')
plt.xlabel('Date')
plt.ylabel('Daily Return')
​
#Amazon
ax2 = plt.subplot(2, 3, 2)
plt.plot(daily_return['AMZN'], color='green')
plt.title('Amazon')
plt.xlabel('Date')
​
​
#Apple
ax3 = plt.subplot(2, 3, 3)
plt.plot(daily_return['AAPL'], color='green')
plt.title('Apple')
plt.xlabel('Date')
​
​
ax4 = plt.subplot(2, 3, 4)
plt.plot(daily_return['GOOG'], color='green')
plt.xlabel('Date')
plt.ylabel('Daily Return')
​
ax5 = plt.subplot(2, 3, 5)
plt.plot(daily_return['FB'], color='green')
plt.xlabel('Date')
​
​
​
plt.show()

``````

``````6. Calculate and plot the mean of each tech stock's daily simple rate of return
Step 1: Calculate mean rate of return
For each stock, calculate the mean daily simple rate of return.

Step 2: Plot bar chart
Use matplotlib to create a bar chart comparing the mean daily simple rate of return for each stock. Label the chart appropriately

Step 3: Analyze mean rate of return
Based on the mean rate of return, which stock would be the best option to invest in?

#Calculating the mean rate of return
​
mean_daily_return = daily_return.mean()
print(mean_daily_return)
Symbols
MSFT    0.002532
AMZN    0.001933
AAPL    0.002208
GOOG    0.000522
FB      0.003046
dtype: float64
Facebook has the highest mean simple rate of return over the period of data collected. Thus Facebook would have been a good choice for investment over this period of time. Google, on the other hand, has the lowest mean simple rate of return over the period.

#Plotting bar chart
​
ax7 = plt.subplot()
ax7.set_xticks(range(len(symbols)))
ax7.set_xticklabels(symbols)
​
plt.bar(range(len(symbols)), mean_daily_return, color = 'green')
​
plt.xlabel('Stocks')
plt.ylabel('Mean Daily')
plt.title('Mean Rate of Return x Stocks')
​
plt.show()

``````

``````# Based only on the rate of the mean daily rate of return of stocks, the Facebook stock has the highest mean return rate.
#Therefore, it is the best option to invest.
7. Calculate and plot the variance.
Step 1: Calculate the variance
For each stock, calculate the variance of the mean daily simple rate of return.

Step 2: Plot bar chart
Use matplotlib to create a bar chart comparing the variance for each stock. Label the chart appropriately

Step 3: Analyse the variance
Based on the variance, which stock would be the riskiest to invest in?

#Calculating the variance
​
variance_daily_return = daily_return.var()
print(variance_daily_return)
Symbols
MSFT    0.000191
AMZN    0.000280
AAPL    0.000345
GOOG    0.000258
FB      0.000408
dtype: float64
#Plotting bar chart
ax8 = plt.subplot()
ax8.set_xticks(range(len(symbols)))
ax8.set_xticklabels(symbols)
​
plt.bar(range(len(symbols)), variance_daily_return, color = 'green')
​
plt.xlabel('Stocks')
plt.ylabel('Variance')
plt.title('Variance x Stocks')
​
plt.show()
​
``````

``````
#Analyzing the variance
​
#Considering the stocks are being analyzed individually, Facebook is the riskiest one  due to its highest variance.

8. Calculate and plot the standard deviation
Step 1: Calculate the standard deviation
For each stock, calculate the standard deviation of the mean daily simple rate of return.

Step 2: Plot the bar chart
Use matplotlib to create a bar chart comparing the standard deviation of the mean daily simple rate of return of each stock. Label the chart appropriately

Step 3: Analyze the standard deviation
Based on the standard deviation of the rates of return, which stock would you choose to invest in and why?

#Calculating Standard Deviation
​
sd_daily_return = daily_return.std()
print(sd_daily_return)
Symbols
MSFT    0.013802
AMZN    0.016742
AAPL    0.018576
GOOG    0.016068
FB      0.020209
dtype: float64
#Plotting bar chart
ax9 = plt.subplot()
ax9.set_xticks(range(len(symbols)))
ax9.set_xticklabels(symbols)
​
plt.bar(range(len(symbols)), sd_daily_return, color = 'green')
​
plt.xlabel('Stocks')
plt.ylabel('Standard Deviation')
plt.title('Standard Deviation x Stocks')
​
plt.show()
​
``````

``````#Analyzing the Standard Deviation
​
#I would choose a stock to invest according to my investor profile. If I'd rather take more risk, I would invest in Facebook sotcks.
# because it brings more return.
#On the other hand, if I was risk-averse, I would invest in Microsoft stocks because brings a good return with less risk.

9. Calculate the correlations
Calculate the correlations between each of the stocks. Which stocks are positively correlated? Which are negatively correlated? Which have little correlation?

#Calculating Correlation
​
correlation= daily_return.corr()
print(correlation)
Symbols      MSFT      AMZN      AAPL      GOOG        FB
Symbols
MSFT     1.000000  0.731493  0.652943  0.636987  0.454094
AMZN     0.731493  1.000000  0.610110  0.721504  0.572073
AAPL     0.652943  0.610110  1.000000  0.569773  0.438760
GOOG     0.636987  0.721504  0.569773  1.000000  0.633440
FB       0.454094  0.572073  0.438760  0.633440  1.000000
``````

Regards!!