Python:greedy algo?

what is greedy algo?
is keyfunction already built ?

class Food(object):
    def __init__(self, n, v, w): = n
        self.value = v
        self.calories = w
    def getValue(self):
        return self.value
    def getCost(self):
        return self.calories
    def density(self):   
        return self.getValue()/self.getCost()
    def __str__(self):
        return + ': <' + str(self.value)\
                 + ', ' + str(self.calories) + '>'

def buildMenu(names, values, calories):
    """names, values, calories lists of same length.
       name a list of strings
       values and calories lists of numbers
       returns list of Foods"""
    menu = []
    for i in range(len(values)):
        menu.append(Food(names[i], values[i],
    return menu
#flexible greedy 
def greedy(items, maxCost, keyFunction):
    """Assumes items a list, maxCost >= 0,
         keyFunction maps elements of items to numbers"""
    itemsCopy = sorted(items, key = keyFunction,
                       reverse = True)
#not getting key function  explain this syntax
    result = []
    totalValue, totalCost = 0.0, 0.0
    for i in range(len(itemsCopy)):
        if (totalCost+itemsCopy[i].getCost()) <= maxCost:
            totalCost += itemsCopy[i].getCost()
            totalValue += itemsCopy[i].getValue()
    return (result, totalValue)

def testGreedy(items, constraint, keyFunction):
    taken, val = greedy(items, constraint, keyFunction)
    print('Total value of items taken =', val)  #please explain this code too taken,val ??
    for item in taken:
        print('   ', item)

def testGreedys(foods, maxUnits):
    print('Use greedy by value to allocate', maxUnits,
    testGreedy(foods, maxUnits, Food.getValue)
    print('\nUse greedy by cost to allocate', maxUnits,
    testGreedy(foods, maxUnits,
               lambda x: 1/Food.getCost(x))
    print('\nUse greedy by density to allocate', maxUnits,
    testGreedy(foods, maxUnits, Food.density)

names = ['wine', 'beer', 'pizza', 'burger', 'fries',
         'cola', 'apple', 'donut', 'cake']
values = [89,90,95,100,90,79,50,10]
calories = [123,154,258,354,365,150,95,195]
foods = buildMenu(names, values, calories)
testGreedys(foods, 1000)

It is not built in, but defined in the class as three methods.

Notice in the call expression above the class method that is passed as the keyFunction argument? Likewise in these two calls…

In the one expression, the lambda is the keyFunction. It operates on a class method.

The other two pass in representations of the methods (not invoked) which can be invoked by the called function.

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