Depending on what you want it for, you may wish to consider the relative merits/demerits of Python(numpy/pandas + matplotlib), MATLAB and several others, e.g. R, Julia, Mathmetica since they all have certain strengths and weaknesses. Spend a while searching for the best option to save yourself time in the future (guidance from someone with the same background will always be best). A well supported language is always a good start (where most of the questions already have answers) and you can always specialise at a later date as necessary.
As someone who moved from MATLAB for analysing data to numpy/matplotlib I don’t think it’s necessary to math methods with MATLAB. Learn them in whatever language you’re going to use the most, the math itself isn’t going to change. Using numpy and maptplotlib together is fairly similar to the basic set-up of MATLAB though tools/libraries for more complex methods will beign to differ.
MATLAB might be quicker just to start with since it’s desgined for a certain set of uses whereas Python would probably take more effort but is good for a general purpose.