 # How to utilize a loop of `for` and `else`?

So I tried the following code to also print out whether x is a prime or not, instead of just none and False. Why does it print only 4 is not a prime and not 2 is a prime?

``````def is_prime (x):
if x < 2:
return False
else:
for n in range (2, x-1):
if x % n == 0:
print x, "is not a prime"
return False
else:
print x, "is a prime"
return True

print is_prime (2)
print is_prime (4)
``````

return means handing back a value to the function call, and indicating that the function is done/completed.

your function returns in the first iteration of the loop, so the return will break free from the loop (so to speak)

def is_prime (x):
if x < 2:
return False
else:
for n in range (2, x-1):
if x % n == 0:
print x, “is not a prime”
else:
print x, “is a prime”

is_prime (2)
is_prime (4)

But even like this it does not print 2 is a prime. And I am not returning True or False in between. I don’t understand how I can have it print 2 is a prime as well.

for x = 2 the loop will never run, there are no steps to take.

you solve two problems at once figuring out that a number is prime number after the loop ran all its iteration without the if condition being true, thus you get `for else`

Somewhere in the documentation it says that when,

``````for...
else...
``````

is used, there should be a `break` in the for loop. No break, no else.

In a for - else loop, break causes else to be bypassed, so if you are searching for something and do not find it, you can print or return an appropriate notification. (The else clause also executes if the for loop is bypassed.):

``````for n in [3,7,9,10]:     # break is encountered
if n % 2 == 0:
print("{} is even".format(n))
break
else:
print("no even numbers")
# Output:
10 is even
``````

vs

``````for n in [3,7,9]:     # break is not encountered
if n % 2 == 0:
print("{} is even".format(n))
break
else:
print("no even numbers")
# Output:
no even numbers
``````

vs

``````for n in []:     # No break, but for loop never entered
if n % 2 == 0:
print("{} is even".format(n))
else:
print("no even numbers")

# Output:
no even numbers
``````

Of course, if break is omitted, it won’t work like you want:

``````for n in [3,7,9, 10]:       # No break here
if n % 2 == 0:
print("{} is even".format(n))
else:
print("no even numbers")

# Output:
10 is even
no even numbers
``````
2 Likes

def is_prime(x):

``````if x < 2:

return False

else:

for n in range(2, x-1):

if x % n == 0:

return False

return True
``````

This is the solution provided. What I don’t understand here is that the final return is by the function itself. In this way, the returned value should always be True, regardless of what the else statement returns?

1 Like

no. Once a return keyword is reached, the function hands back data and is done executing. So when return false is reached, the function ends. It never reaches return True then

2 Likes

Why are we using x - 1 instead of just x?

assuming…x = 7

print range(2, x-1)
[2, 3, 4, 5] = 7/2, 7/3, 7/4, 7/5 all equal remainder thus prime

vs.

print range(2, x) = [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
7/2, 7/3, 7/4, 7/5, 7/6 all equal remainder thus prime

I don’t understand why the extra logic of “-1” is required… am I missing something?

Cheers

If x is 7, then `range(x)` is literally, `[0, 1, .., x-2, x-1]`. The author may have been describing it in literal terms. Go ahead and just use,

``range(2, x)``

I don’t understand how below solution can generate True for x = 2. In the for loop, 2 % 2 = 0 and 2 % 1 = 0, response should be False. What am I not getting?

``````def is_prime(x):
if x < 2:
return False
for i in range(2, x-1):
if x % i == 0:
return False
return True

print is_prime(2)
``````

How does the code end up in the for loop? `range()` won’t produce any values given the stop value is equal to or smaller then the start value.

1 Like

To add to what @stetim94 said, you can add distinct print statements to your code to aid in following the flow of the program with different inputs:

``````def is_prime(x):
print "Position 1"
if x < 2:
print "Position 2"
return False
print "Position 3"
for i in range(2, x-1):
print "Position 4"
if x % i == 0:
print "Position 5"
return False
print "Position 6"
return True

print "is_prime(2)\n", is_prime(2), "\n"
print "is_prime(-3)\n", is_prime(-3), "\n"
print "is_prime(6)\n", is_prime(6), "\n"
``````
Output:

is_prime(2)
Position 1
Position 3
Position 6
True

is_prime(-3)
Position 1
Position 2
False

is_prime(6)
Position 1
Position 3
Position 4
Position 5
False

Alternatively, you could use a code visualizer like http://www.pythontutor.com/visualize.html#mode=edit or a debugging program.

Thanks. My apologies. I asked my question poorly. I understand the for loop steps but have question about the math. It seems to me that if we run the loop, 2 % 2 == 0. So shouldn’t that return False? Why is it returning True?

I thought covered this? The loop doesn’t run. So the math you think is happening, does never happen. The code doesn’t get there. So this is not related to math, this related to the loop and the flow of the program.

Will that line ever been seen if x is 2? Consider, what is,

``````range(2, 2)
``````

?

Or as written above,

``````range(2, 1)
``````

?
That’s the point @stetim94 is trying to make.

Okay! Thanks both! The range thing was tripping me up.

1 Like