How to correctly calculate the number of hard links in exercise 3.ls -l?


#1

Greetings,
I'm a lil stumped on how the number of hard links were calculated in this exercise. In the exercise instructions especially no. 2 it says:
"This number counts the number of child directories and files. This number includes the parent directory link (..) and current directory link (.)."

Based on this, shouldn't the no of hard links for the action directory be 6 including the action directory itself instead of 4 as listed below?

$ ls -l
total 12
drwxr-xr-x 4 ccuser ccuser 4096 Jul 8 17:33 action
drwxr-xr-x 4 ccuser ccuser 4096 Jul 8 17:33 comedy
drwxr-xr-x 4 ccuser ccuser 4096 Jul 8 13:05 drama
-rw-r--r-- 1 ccuser ccuser 0 Jul 8 17:33 genres.txt
$

Thank you for your time!


#2

files and directory's that start with a dot are not displayed when running: ls -l, you need the -a flag, you will get in the next exercise. In case, here is what the man pages of ls say about -a:

-a, --all
              do not ignore entries starting with .