How can we use the tag <h1> in body tag,when we have already ended the tag <head> before body of the document


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but head and heading serve very different purposes.

I know it is confusing, they might sound similar, but they are different


A post was split to a new topic: Html structure


Hello. Thank you very much for your kind reply. I have another question. Upon typing ls -a, we will get the following:

. matrix-reloaded.txt matrix.txt superhero tatang.txt
.. matrix-revolutions.txt scifi superman.txt wonderwoman.txt

What does "." and ".." mean in plain english and please give me example within this context. I really want to know this before going further.

Also, I accidentally type ls -s and it gave me something. What is "ls -s" for?

Please do enlight me on this matter.

Thank you very much.


They are something called hard links, . is for the current directory (you can use this to execute files in the current directory: ./

.. is a hard link to the parent directory, which explains why cd .. will go the the previous directory. I have no idea, thankfully we have man pages: man ls, which gives:
-s, --size
print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

So, it gives the filesize. If we combine this with the h flag (-h):

ls -sh

what does h do? From the man pages:
-h, --human-readable
with -l and/or -s, print human readable sizes (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

So it makes the file size more human readable.


Hello, thank you very much for your kind insights.

  1. Suppose we have the following data structure:

Mars contains: Rock.txt Mountain.txt

I am now on "/Mars".

So: Where is the "." and ".." here?

Again, to be double sure:
Is it correct when I say "Moon is the parent directory of Mars and Cabal"?
Is it also correct to say "Mars is the parent directory of Rock and Mountain"?

Thank you very much


if you do ls -a you should see . and .., each directory has them.

Also correct, + mars has moon as direct parent directory. Just a small addition.

This is wrong. rock and mountain are files, they are in the moon directory


Sorry, but can we also say: rock and mountain are files, they are in Mars directory?


I got that wrong, that should be mars directory indeed. And the mars directory has moon as parent directory


Allright. So, the name "Parent Directory" only and only refers to the mother of all directories. Am I right in this matter?


No, the mother of all directory's is the root directory cd / (which contains all directory's)

The parent directory refers to the parent, let's say i have i have:


Documents parent directory is user, user parents directory is home and home parents directory is root (/)


Ah,I see. As I suspected.

Thank you very much for the enlightment. I really appreciate your help, comrade.


I apologize for asking this as I do not want to create new thread.

Can I insert comment before !DOCTYPE html tag ??

Thank you very much.


Well, have you tried? I believe this is possible