Help needed on code notation

python

#1



This is not so much related to any exercise in general.
I have a problem understanding when does the method goes before the object such as str()/len() etc. and when does the object come before the method such as list.append()/str.upper().

Is there any guideline as to which comes before which?



#2

In this case that is simple. No, there is no guideline as neither case is applicable. What reading can you refer us to so that we may be better apprised of the same information?