FAQ: Web Scraping with Beautiful Soup - Find All


This community-built FAQ covers the “Find All” exercise from the lesson “Web Scraping with Beautiful Soup”.

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FAQs on the exercise Find All

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1 Like

The lesson shows that you can pass a function to soup.find_all() with the following example:

def has_banner_class_and_hello_world(tag):
    return tag.attr('class') == "banner" and tag.string == "Hello world"


How does the function get its “tag” argument?

Is it because “tag” is an arg for .find_all() so it automatically supplies “tag” for the function? If that’s correct, would it work if the “tag” in .find_all() were a kwarg instead of an arg?


If I try to use

def has_banner_class_and_hello_world(tag):
return tag.attr(‘class’) == “banner” and tag.string == “Hello world”

in my own code or in the Code Academy example I receive the following error:

Traceback (most recent call last):
File “script.py”, line 12, in
File “/usr/local/lib/python3.6/dist-packages/bs4/element.py”, line 1376, in find_all
return self._find_all(name, attrs, text, limit, generator, **kwargs)
File “/usr/local/lib/python3.6/dist-packages/bs4/element.py”, line 616, in _find_all
found = strainer.search(i)
File “/usr/local/lib/python3.6/dist-packages/bs4/element.py”, line 1781, in search
found = self.search_tag(markup)
File “/usr/local/lib/python3.6/dist-packages/bs4/element.py”, line 1737, in search_tag
or (markup and self._matches(markup, self.name))
File “/usr/local/lib/python3.6/dist-packages/bs4/element.py”, line 1813, in _matches
return match_against(markup)
File “script.py”, line 10, in has_banner_class_and_hello_world
return tag.attr(‘class’) == “banner” and tag.string == “Hello world”
TypeError: ‘NoneType’ object is not callable

1 Like

There seems to be a slight mistake in the example code. First of all, I think tag.attr is a typo for tag.attrs. Also, tag.attrs will be a dictionary, so we should use square brackets [] instead of parentheses () to get a value. But it would result in a KeyError for a tag that doesn’t have a class attribute, so we should use the .get() method instead.

In summary, I think the example code should be modified as follows:

def has_banner_class_and_hello_world(tag):
    return tag.attrs.get('class') == "banner" and tag.string == "Hello world"


I tried a bit more, and found the tag.attrs.get('class') will be a list or None. So the code in the previous post is still inaccurate and we need to modify it as follows:

def has_banner_class_and_hello_world(tag):
    return "banner" in tag.attrs.get('class', []) and tag.string == "Hello world"


I had the very same question regarding how they are passing a function as an argument. Were you able to find any answers? Like you insinuated, my guess is that the tag they’re passing will be the soup variable that the other methods call on.

Why hasn’t Codecademy provided a proper answer after a year? I also wonder how this is possible.


I think we can use find_all() function without any argument at all. It means that we get HTML code for every tag in soup object. In this particular exercise we have list with 51 element.
Our custom function get tag argument and return True if conditions inside the function are met. If custom func. returns True, then find_all() return HTML code with that particular tag.
We put custom func. inside find_all() as it was a variable, pass the function object as an argument to another function. It’s like a lambda function.
I don’t know what attr() function is… We have to use tag.get(‘name of attr’) or tag.atters[‘name of attr’] because tag.atters return dict.

For example

def find_all_condition(tag):
  return tag.get('href') == 'hal.html' or tag.string == 'Spyro'
print(soup.find_all(find_all_condition))` works.