FAQ: Subqueries - Correlated Subqueries I

This community-built FAQ covers the “Correlated Subqueries I” exercise from the lesson “Subqueries”.

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This exercise can be found in the following Codecademy content:

SQL: Table Transformation

FAQs on the exercise Correlated Subqueries I

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I don’t understand the importance of
WHERE carrier = f.carrier

Could someone explain please?


The average value is calculated based on “carrier”, it is already compared with “distance”


This was confusing for me too.

I think since SQL is accessing the same table “flights” and column “distance” based on carriers SQL needs to distinguish the difference between the two. One instance of carriers is holding all the distances as “f.carrier” while the the other is holding the average (AVG) distances as just “carriers” so we are now comparing the two here: WHERE carrier = f.carrier I think SQL needs to be able to distinguish the two in order to use the < or > operators in the above query and give us the appropriate id associated to those carriers who are above or below average.

This is basically what @smilexdrus has stated and what I think I understood from it. I’m just trying to be more explanatory about it.


Why is there the following?
f.origin = flights.origin

Aren’t they both referring to the same chart and data?

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My understanding is that this will calculate the average distance for each carrier every time it comes up in the flight list.
i.e. the average for each carrier is calculated multiple times.

Is that true?
If so, is this a wasteful/slow way of doing it?
If so, how would you go about doing it otherwise? Would you create a table of carrier names and averages then look up the value in that? Would that actually speed things up?

Thanks in advance,

I don’t understand this:
FROM flights AS f
Why “as f”?
I tried omitting the “as f” part and used “WHERE carrier = flights.carrier” instead of “WHERE carrier = f.carrier”. Does it mean the same thing?

The aliased table (f) is used to distinquish between the two times that the flights table is approached for data. Simply put, the query refers to the same table twice:

Once to select ID’s where the distance is greater than…
Once to select the average distance.

The two are combined to create the result.

The query is confusing because multiple ways of working are used (aliased tables and non-aliased tables). Personally I would write the query as follows:

FROM flights AS a
WHERE a.distance > (
SELECT AVG(b.distance)
FROM flights as b
WHERE b.carrier = a.carrier);

This creates a far better overview of what is actually done.

Coming back to my earlier explanation:

Once to select ID’s where the distance is greater than… <- is extracted from aliased table a.
Once to select the average distance. <- is extracted from aliased table b.


Reading the instructions of the exercise :
“Find the id of the flights whose distance is below average for their carrier”,
what I thought that I had to do was to calculate the average for every distinct carrier and then compare the result with the distance of each flight(id) . The expression “for their carrier” meant for me executing a 'GROUP BY carrier ’ in the subquery.

So, firstly I wrote seperately the query :
SELECT carrier, AVG(distance)
FROM flights
GROUP BY carrier
to have a clear picture of the average distances for every carrier

and then I wrote the code I thought as the solution:
SELECT id, carrier, distance
FROM flights
WHERE distance < (
SELECT AVG(distance)
FROM flights
GROUP BY carrier)
ORDER BY carrier;

Apart from id, I also selected the columns ‘carrier’ & ‘distance’ as a more analytical approach of the solution and moreover , I ordered the outer query by carrier to be easier for me to approach the results in relation to my first ‘experimental’ query.

Unfortunately, my solution turned out to be wrong because: 1) it was different from the codeacademy solution code & 2) some results were not logical.
For example, for the FL carrier the AVG(distance) is 583,16.
My solution included the id flight 12038 whose distance is 590. This shouldn’t be the case, I was looking for id’s whose distance is lower than average, not higher!

In the official solution code (I also added here the columns carrier, distance and ORDER BY carrier for the outer query), this id flight is , as expected, not included .

I wonder what is wrong with my “GROUP BY carrier” approach in the subquery. Why some of the calculated results are wrong?

Finally, what is actually the contribution of the line in the official solution code “WHERE carrier = f.carrier”. Which are the calculations that are made, in what order, when the code is executed in relation to this line and the results are as expected?

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