FAQ: Functions - Functions for Flexibility

This community-built FAQ covers the “Functions for Flexibility” exercise from the lesson “Functions”.

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This exercise can be found in the following Codecademy content:

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FAQs on the exercise Functions for Flexibility

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I’m not sure I understand how to call a function with two arguments in case I only want to use one.

For example here:

function makeSandwich(“ham”, “cheese”) {
Add bread
Add ham
Add cheese
Add bread

Suppose I only want to use ham. How do I call the function?
Would it be something like this:
makeSandwich(“ham”) ?
Whereas if I want to use both, I’ll just do makeSandwich() which executes the function entirely.

Is that correct?

Thanks in advance!

1 Like

First we write the parameters as variables, not values…

function makeSandwich(ingredient1, ingredient2) {

and then pass the actual values as the call arguments…

makeSandwich('ham', 'cheese')

Our function will assemble these ingredients between two slices of bread, and return the final product.

sandwich = 'bread' + ', ';
sandwich += ingredient1 + ', ';
sandwich += ingredient2 + ', ';
sandwich += 'bread';
return sandwich;

The return value will be a string that looks like this…

'bread, ham, cheese, bread'
1 Like

Hi! Thanks for the reply.
I have another doubt now. If I write it like this, i.e. with no arguments:

function makeSandwich() {
sandwich = ‘bread’ + ‘,’
sandwich += ‘bread’
return sandwich

Why do I still have to write this part:

result = makeSandwich();

Even if the function has no arguments?
Can’t I just call the function like this:


1 Like

You could, but then the return value will vanish. By assigning it to a receiving variable we retain the value for further use, such as printing.

whats the difference between variables and functions

Variables are just names we give to references. They’re like a mailing label. We have an object, but to access that object we need to give it a label so we can refer to it later.

Functions are blocks of code. Since their reference is assignable we can write an expression and assign it to a variable. That is the name the function will be known by.

We can assign any object or expression to a variable. It doesn’t hold the data, it merely points to where it is stored. The language looks after the details. All we need is to know the name to reference it.

variable_name = 'assigned value'
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How come the lesson example didn’t define the function like this with a return at the end? Is this just a peak under the hood that the lesson didn’t explain?

One supposes so, yes. return takes a bit of explanation that would be more than needed for this exercise.

Why do we list add bread twice when defining the function for flexibility but we didn’t list it twice when writing the function for reusability?

You are correct that there is a discrepancy between the two. I believe that the Functions For Reusability Exercise should have included Add bread twice. You could create a post under the Bug Reporting category to bring this to Codecademy’s attention.

Welcome to the forums!

So when the function is defined, it should list add bread twice, but when it is called, it will only display add bread one time?

Add bread
Add burger patty
Add pickles

should result in only one bread being added.

Add bread
Add burger patty
Add pickles
Add bread

should result in two bread being added.

It is just a minor discrepancy between the two exercises, I wouldn’t look too much into it. Instead, focus on the main point of the exercise, which is how functions can make code more reusable and achieve greater flexibility.

Thank you for clarifying!

1 Like


hai can you please explain those symbols meanings like why did you write += in each line. its meaning
and in each line end you wrote + ', '; its meaning

i just dont understand those symbols and placing them like that and in the end return sandwich its meaning

+= is the augmentation operator for concatenation of strings (as well as addition of numbers). We are simply extending the existing string (sandwich) by adding an ingredient followed by a comma and space (', '). At the end we top it off with bread.

We could have written it otherwise as one long concatenation expression but instead we spread it over several lines.

There is also a new form of string expression in ES6, template literal which we would write like this…

    return `bread, ${ingredient1}, ${ingredient2}, bread`;
1 Like

ingredient1 and 2 are also strings right doesn’t they require apostrophe’s around them

They are variables that point to string values, so no quotes.


I wanted to ask
We have to declare ingredient1 and ingredient2 as ham and cheese, as peanut butter and jelly , as patty and pickle everytime we have to make a thing , right?

If you mean do we always need two ingredients, it would appear so since there are two variables in the return value.