It’s kind of impossible to provide a list of useful algorithms. So forgive me, but I will not even try to do that
Computer science is such a broad subject that it’s really hard to say that something is useful or not. If you are not interested in computer vision you will never have to implement a Sobel operator, which is one of fundamental tools in this domain, so is it useful or not? It depends on your interests.
Take a look at this discussion, you posted a question related to algorithms and you got two Codecademy moderators chimming in to share their thoughts. In the result you have one more algorithm in your arsenal. And this is how it works. Keep up this attitude and your arsenal of algorithmic tools will grow larger.
But there is something I can do, I can give you an advice. If you are interested in algorithmics (and it seems like you are!) there are many great resources that are worth of time investment. For me, personally, these two books were game changing:
The Art of Computer Programming by Donald Knuth. I can’t stress enough how awesome these books are (there are several volumes and more to come in the future). Donald Knuth has extraordinary ability to infect readers with a love for algorithms. Truly a masterpiece.
Introduction to Algorithms by Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest and Clifford Stein. In many universities around the world this book is a main textbook for algorithm courses. Every chapter describes different algorithm and descriptions of algorithms are written in a way to ensure understanding of the process. For me this was a one time read, but I have colleagues who keep this book on their desks in the workplace Worth reading, for sure.