Career path and regular courses

So for example the JavaScript has its own course but also it is in the career path curriculum. Are they basically same? Or is career path curriculum containing more advanced topics?

Career paths are basically a set of courses that you take for aiming towards a particular goal. For example, you may just want to learn Javascript so that you can build some small personal projects you are interested in, in which case you would just take the regular “Learn Javascriptcourse.
However, you may wish to learn to develop a dynamic webpage. To do this, you would need HTML, CSS, Javascript, maybe even SQL if you want a database for it (logins etc). So instead of taking all these courses individually, you can take a Web Development Career Path, which will introduce you to the languages and concepts one at a time, in a curated order, so as to best maximise your understanding of the languages for the end goal.
There’s also Skill Paths, which are a nice middleground, say you want to learn to specifically create an applet, which is more involved than the regular JS course, however you don’t want to learn the full web page development, you can take the Back-End JS App Skill Path, which will fill that niche.

TL:DR; Career Paths are made up of individual courses, usually with some added reading in there also and some path-specific lessons. Essentially everything in a career path can be convered individually through courses, however the career path gives you the guidance towards reaching a specific goal.