Hey Mike, that’s a very specific sort of question, I’m not sure how many people around here would have insights into what Sr. Fraud Detection Analysts with experience in startups would have as a path, particularly when your goal is “just” to grow your salary by adding coding and not something more specific. Coding can mean a lot of things, and there’s a lot of different directions you can go, so for your fellow students here to be helpful you’ll probably need to have some more color to this picture. You’re in the industry yourself, so you’d have a better handle on what technical skills can do for you to progress up the ladder, for example by looking to peers who have learned to code.
The most important thing for you to do here is to start. A lot of people get hung up on the “what is my complete path?” stage, but you can ask those questions ad infinitum. You will be better placed to answer your own questions once you have more context into what all of those questions mean. On the face of it yes, your intuition for SQL and Python seem to be good ones given your finance background. Take those courses, and the picture will start to form for you!